Recruitment to various services and posts
Under Article 320 of the Constitution of India, the Commission are, inter-alia, required to be consulted on all matters relating to recruitment to civil services and posts.
Recruitment is made by one of the following three methods:
- Direct Recruitment;
- Promotion; and
Direct Recruitment is conducted broadly under the following two methods:
- Recruitment by competitive examination
- Recruitment by selection through interview
Recruitment by Competitive Examination
Under the Constitution one of the functions of the Commission is to conduct examinations for appointment to Civil Services/Posts of the Union. In addition, competitive examinations are also held by the Commission under arrangements with the Ministry of Defence for entry to certain Defence Services, through the National Defence Academy, Indian Military Academy, Naval Academy, Air Force Academy and the Officers Training Academy.
The Commission usually conducts over a dozen examinations every year on an all India basis. These include Examinations for recruitment to services/posts in various fields, such as Civil Services, Engineering, Medical and Forest Service, etc.
For an overview of examinations regularly held by the Commission. See “Overview of Examination” under this Chapter.
At present the Union Public Service Commission conduct their examinations at numerous venues spread over 42 regular centers throughout the country.
Recruitment by selection
Recruitment by Selection is made by the following methods:
- By Interview Only
- By Recruitment Test Followed By Interview
By Interview only
Where the number of applicants is very large, it is not practicable to call for Interview all the applicants who fulfill the minimum eligibility conditions prescribed. The Commission, therefore, shortlist the candidates to be called for the interview on the basis of certain pre-determined criteria related to the job. A large number of recruitment cases is handled by the Commission by this method.
By written test followed by Interview
In this category, there are two types of procedure followed:
- An objective-type written and/or practical test to test the skill of the candidates followed by Interview, the final selection being decided by Interview, aided by the performance of the candidates in the written test and/or practical test.
- An objective-type written and/or practical test to screen candidates to be called for interview, the final selection being decided by Interview only.
Appointment by promotion and transfer on deputation/transfer
In accordance with the procedure decided by the Government, in consultation with the Commission, Chairman or a Member of the Commission presides over the Departmental Promotion Committee Meetings to consider promotions from Group B to Group A and from one grade to another within group A, where promotion is to be made by Selection.
The Recruitment Rules for a number of posts provide for appointment by Transfer on Deputation (including short term contract) and Transfer. When the field of consideration consists of Central Government as well as State Government officers, prior consultation with the Commission is necessary for selection of an officer. When the file for consideration is made more broad-based and consists of not only Central/State Government officers but also officers from Non-Government Institutions, the selection has to be made in consultation with the Union Public Service Commission.
All India Services
The All India Services Act, 1951 and Rules and Regulations framed thereunder regulate the recruitment and conditions of service in respect of the All India Services viz. Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service and Indian Forest Service.
As far as direct recruitment to the Indian Administrative Service and Indian Police Service Examination are concerned, it is done through the Civil Services Examination and for the Indian Forest Service through the Indian Forest Service Examination held by the Commission.
The relevant Rules and Regulations provide that 33% of the vacancies in the IAS/IPS/IFS should be filled by promotion from amongst the officers of the State Service in consultation with the Commission. The Selection Committee presided over by Chairman/Member of the Commission consists of senior Government representatives of the Central Government and the State.
Mechanisation – Project Sampera
The Commission have recently undertaken a project called “SAMPERA” (Screening and Mechanised Processing of Examination and Recruitment Applications). A simplified single sheet common application form for all the examinations has been devised which will be scanned by using OMR/ICR technology. The implementation of this project will mainly help in high speed scanning of data from forms eliminating manual entry. Other benefits will be accurate and faster generation of Admit Cards, Attendance lists with photo replica and signature facsimile of each candidate, and Error-free list of doubtful cases. The main aim of this project is to cope with the increasing volume of applications through innovations and mechanised handling so as to reduce the processing time and send communications faster to minimised errors. The cases of impersonation/malpractices will also be eliminated and wasteful expenditure will be reduced.
In accordance with the provisions contained in Article 320 of the Constitution read with the provisions of Union Public Service Commission (Exemption from Consultation) Regulations 1958, Recruitment Rules of all Group ‘A’ and Group ‘B” posts in various Ministries/Departments of Government of India are required to be framed in Consultation with the Commission. Consultation with the Commission is also necessary for framing/amending Recruitment Rules for certain categories of posts under the Employees State Insurance Corporation, The Delhi Municipal Corporation, The New Delhi Municipal Council, Employees Provident Fund Organisation etc. under the relevant Acts made by Parliament in pursuance of the provisions of Article 321.
All proposals for framing/amending Recruitment Rules are examined keeping in view the cadre structure of the organisation and the circulars issued by the Govt. from time to time. After approval, the Commissions’ advice in the matter is communicated to the Ministry/Department concerned. More than 14000 Recruitment Rules have been framed/amended so far.
To Duties & Role of the Commission
Under Article 320(3) of the Constitution the Commission are required to be consulted on the quantum of penalties in disciplinary cases affecting a person serving under the Government of India in a Civil Capacity.
Extension Of Functions To Local Bodies
Article 321 also empowers the Parliament to extend the functions of the Public Service Commission to any local authority or other body corporate constituted by Law or by any public institutions.
In order to exempt some posts which for reasons of National Security or some other reasons may not be required to be referred to the Commission for their advice, the Union Public Service Commission (Exemption from Consultations) Regulations were issued on September 1, 1958, under Article 320(3)(a) and (b) of the Constitution. These Regulations are amended or revised as and when the need arises.
Recruitment & Conditions of Service
The Provisions as contained in Article 309 & Article 311 of the Constitution are also required to be read in conjunction with the provisions as contained in Article 320 of the Constitution.
Binding nature of the advice of the Commission
A convention has been established by the Government of India, that in the following classes of the cases referred to the Commission, the recommendations made by them shall be accepted, save in exceptional circumstances.
- Quasi-judicial cases.
- Selection for appointments of candidates.
- Appointment of a candidate on a higher initial pay than that of a minimum pay of the posts.
- Claims of expenditure incurred by the Government servants in defending legal proceedings instituted against him in respect of acts done or purporting to be done in the execution of his duty
The Commission have a duty, under Article 323 of the Constitution to present annually to the President a Report as to the work done by the Commission and on receipt of such report, the president shall cause a copy there of together with the Memorandum explaining, as respect the cases, if any, where the advice of the Commission was not accepted, the reasons for such non-acceptance to be laid before each House of the Parliament.